On Grid Solar PV System

Solar On-Grid rooftop System: 

Solar Rooftop PV(Photo Voltaic) system using On-grid is also termed as a Grid-tied system or Utility interactive or Grid back feeding or Grid intertie system. In this kind of sytem, the Solar is connected with utility grid ( typically the power lines) along with the loads and batteries if any are present. In pure on-grid solar PV system, batteries are not connected.

Solar PV system generation

In general solar peak, generation is between 10:00 AM to 2:00 PM. But, based on the type of system installed, surroundings, and all other design specifications taken care, generation can be anywhere between 7:00 AM till 5:00 PM too.

Working of pure On-Grid Solar PV Sytems:

In pure on grid solar PV system batteries are absent. Once the Solar generation starts all the generated energy tries to compensate the existing loads. Once all the loads are satisfied excess generation will be going to the grid. Grid by itself acts as a virtual battery taking in all the excess energy exported. When there is a shortage(or even when there is zero generation) in energy generation from the Solar rooftop for all the available loads excess required energy is imported from the grid. By end of every month based on total export and import billing will be done. This net will be calculated with the help of a Bi-directional meter.

Working of a Bi-directional meter

Difference between the traditional Unidirectional meter and the Bi-directional meter is unidirectional meter only displays the total energy imported from the grid. Whereas Bi-directional meter reads three readings. The total amount of energy exported (in kWh), total amount of energy imported, and net energy difference of the export and import.

Know more about the single-phase bi-directional meter and 3 phase bi-directional meter.

Types of pure On-Grid Solar PV systems

With the day to day development of the technology, Solar technology in rooftop sector improved drastically. There are hundred thousand types of rooftops and each of them has varying surrounding conditions like different roofs, different directions of the roof, shadow issues etc. There are mainly three different types of pure on-grid solar PV systems addressing different situations.

On-Grid Solar PV System using

  • String Inverter
  • Micro Inverter
  • Power Optimizers
String inverters are connected to series of panels. These inverters collect the accumulated DC Voltage and convert the Direct Current of the installed solar array into grid supportive AC power. Even though these inverters don’t have a number of components for failure, generation depends on the least generating module in the series. Due to shadow issues or low performing module of the whole series generation gets affected. This system best suits on the roofs where there are no shading issues due to trees, adjacent buildings etc.

An alternative solution for the string inverters is Micro inverters. In these systems, each module is connected to an inverter which typically is connected just below the panel. With each panel having one inverter avoids the dependency on other modules generation. Each panel will be independent of each other. This kind of system best suits in a place where there are shadow issues on one or more modules, roof with different directions etc. In this kind of systems, module level monitoring is possible. It helps in easy maintenance of the system. One module or one inverter failure wouldn’t affect the generation of rest of the system.

Power optimizers, even though they offer the same solution of what is offered by micro inverters are little different in electronics technology part. In these systems, each module is connected with one power optimizers. These optimizers start’s tracking MPPT at lower voltages. This helps in generation of power even in low light and intense shadow conditions as well. Each of these optimizers sends the DC output to the string inverter at the end, after optimizing the output of each module individually. With these optimizers, more electronic parts are not allowed on the rooftop. Optimizers can be configured in such a way that one optimizer can be connected to one module or two modules decreasing the cost of the over all system.

General working of Solar On-Grid Solar PV System

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